cosmological argument for the existence of god
Something does have these attributes: the cause; hence, the cause is God, the cause exists; hence, God exists. That answer would just presuppose additional contingent beings. It is produced by itself, something or another. For instance, if we know where we have come from then surely, it could be argued, we have some idea of where we are going. [dubious – discuss]. The German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz made a similar argument with his principle of sufficient reason in 1714. As a general trend, the modern slants on the cosmological argument, including the Kalam cosmological argument, tend to lean very strongly towards an in fieri argument. Not by nothing, because nothing causes nothing. … Since these attributes are unique to God, anything with these attributes must be God. Thus, according to Aquinas, there must have been a time when nothing existed.  In The Laws (Book X), Plato posited that all movement in the world and the Cosmos was "imparted motion". Aristotle argued against the idea of a first cause, often confused with the idea of a "prime mover" or "unmoved mover" (πρῶτον κινοῦν ἀκίνητον or primus motor) in his Physics and Metaphysics. The BCCF is generally taken to be the totality of all contingent beings or the logical conjunction of all contingent facts. , Secondly, it is argued that the premise of causality has been arrived at via a posteriori (inductive) reasoning, which is dependent on experience. , Some cosmologists and physicists argue that a challenge to the cosmological argument is the nature of time: "One finds that time just disappears from the Wheeler–DeWitt equation" (Carlo Rovelli). The basic premises of all of these arguments involve the concept of causation. From an "aspiration or desire", the celestial spheres, imitate that purely intellectual activity as best they can, by uniform circular motion.  This is why the argument is often expanded to show that at least some of these attributes are necessarily true, for instance in the modern Kalam argument given above.. Therefore, if there be no first cause among efficient causes, there will be no ultimate, nor any intermediate cause. Duns Scotus, the influential Medieval Christian theologian, created a metaphysical argument for the existence of God. Proponents argue that the First Cause is exempt from having a cause, while opponents argue that this is special pleading or otherwise untrue. Aristotle's natural theology admitted no creation or capriciousness from the immortal pantheon, but maintained a defense against dangerous charges of impiety. He states that infinite regress is impossible, because it provokes unanswerable questions, like, in modern English, "What is infinity minus infinity?" A causal loop is a form of predestination paradox arising where traveling backwards in time is deemed a possibility. In an unscientific time, Aquinas argued for the existence of God through his understanding of science, and with the help of what he thought was physical evidence. Premise 2 refers to what is known as the Big Conjunctive Contingent Fact (abbreviated BCCF) in philosophy of religion. It is then argued that the cause of those things’ existence had to be a “God-type” thing. In fieri is generally translated as "becoming", while in esse is generally translated as "in essence". In academic literature, several philosophers of religion such as Joshua Rasmussen and T. Ryan Byerly have argued for the inference from (4) to (5). Hence, the Universe had a beginning. Scientific American [March 1976], p. 65. Aristotle argued the atomist's assertion of a non-eternal universe would require a first uncaused cause – in his terminology, an efficient first cause – an idea he considered a nonsensical flaw in the reasoning of the atomists. , Philosopher Edward Feser states that classical philosophers' arguments for the existence of God do not care about the Big Bang or whether the universe had a beginning. , The difference between the arguments from causation in fieri and in esse is a fairly important one. The usual reason given to refute the possibility of a causal loop is that it requires that the loop as a whole be its own cause. According to his theses, immaterial unmoved movers are eternal unchangeable beings that constantly think about thinking, but being immaterial, they are incapable of interacting with the cosmos and have no knowledge of what transpires therein. Each … These types of arguments go all the way back to Plato and have been used by notable philosophers and theologians ever since. The unmoved movers inspiring the planetary spheres are no different in kind from the prime mover, they merely suffer a dependency of relation to the prime mover. David Hume highlighted this problem of induction and argued that causal relations were not true a priori. Is God the unmoved mover of Aristotleâs teachings. , Thus, Leibniz's argument is in fieri, while Aquinas' argument is both in fieri and in esse. Again, a liquid receives its shape from the vessel in which it is contained; but were the pressure of the containing sides withdrawn, it would not retain its form for an instant." His explanation for God's existence is long, and can be summarised as follows:, Scotus deals immediately with two objections he can see: first, that there cannot be a first, and second, that the argument falls apart when 1) is questioned. , William Lane Craig, who popularised and is notable for defending the Kalam cosmological argument, argues that the infinite is impossible, whichever perspective the viewer takes, and so there must always have been one unmoved thing to begin the universe. This line of argumentation is often called the cosmological argument for the existence of God. Every contingent fact has an explanation. The argument's key underpinning idea is the metaphysical … Nothing brings itself into exi… To do so, the cause must coexist with its effect and be an existing thing. However, critics have tried to attack this argument in two general, philosophical ways. This form of the argument is far more difficult to separate from a purely first cause argument than is the example of the house's maintenance above, because here the First Cause is insufficient without the candle's or vessel's continued existence. There is a contingent fact that includes all other contingent facts. The Five Ways form only the beginning of Aquinas' Treatise on the Divine Nature. (about the origin).  Aristotle argued in favor of the idea of several unmoved movers, one powering each celestial sphere, which he believed lived beyond the sphere of the fixed stars, and explained why motion in the universe (which he believed was eternal) had continued for an infinite period of time. In the world of sense we find there is an order of efficient causes. It is traditionally known as an argument from universal causation, an argument from first cause, or the causal argument. Nevertheless, David White argues that the notion of an infinite causal regress providing a proper explanation is fallacious. The sufficient reason ... is found in a substance which ... is a necessary being bearing the reason for its existence within itself.".  However, some cosmologists and physicists do attempt to investigate causes for the Big Bang, using such scenarios as the collision of membranes. Craig says the Cosmological Argument is his favorite and most compelling to him personally. St Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) was a well-known monk, philosopher and theologian.. Aquinas offered five ways to prove the existence of God, of which the first three are forms of the cosmological argument - arguments from motion, cause and contingency. He formulated the cosmological argument succinctly: "Why is there something rather than nothing? He says that to deny causation is to deny all empirical ideas – for example, if we know our own hand, we know it because of the chain of causes including light being reflected upon one's eyes, stimulating the retina and sending a message through the optic nerve into your brain. Aquinas's argument from contingency allows for the possibility of a Universe that has no beginning in time. David Hume and later Paul Edwards have invoked a similar principle in their criticisms of the cosmological argument. What are the cosmological arguments for the existence of God? Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274) adapted and enhanced the argument he found in his reading of Aristotle and Avicenna to form one of the most influential versions of the cosmological argument. The arguments offered by these thinkers can be grouped into three basic types: (1) what may be called the kalam cosmological argument for a first cause of the beginning of the universe; (2) the Thomist cosmological argument for a sustaining ground of being of the world; and (3) the Leibnizian cosmological argument for a sufficient reason why anything at all exists. Craig explains, by nature of the event (the Universe coming into existence), attributes unique to (the concept of) God must also be attributed to the cause of this event, including but not limited to: enormous power (if not omnipotence), being the creator of the Heavens and the Earth (as God is according to the Christian understanding of God), being eternal and being absolutely self-sufficient.
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