pedagogical content knowledge in elementary
Workshops that review generic reading skills (the main idea is…), demonstrate only the “fun” aspect of games (great scavenger hunts), or lead teachers to recipe-style learning (following the textbook or instructional guide). Within the category of pedagogical content knowledge I include, for the most regularly taught topics in one's subject area, the most useful forms of representation of those ideas, the most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations - in a word, the ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others . Join organizations and go to conferences such as the national or regional National Science Teachers Association or the NARST meetings. Shulman, L. S. (1986). We should additionally commit to high quality professional development targeted to develop this expertise. [It] also includes an understanding of what makes the learning of specific concepts easy or difficult: the conceptions and preconceptions that students of different ages and backgrounds bring with them to the learning (p. 9). To become more aware of this knowledge and to be able to more clearly think about it, teachers can find ways to keep track of this information, just as they ask students to do with the data collected in lab assignments. Shanahan, C., and T. Shanahan. Renaissance Group. Buchmann, M. (1984). This idea has been documented in Biology by Hauslein, Good, & Cummins (1992), in a comparison of the organization of subject matter knowledge among groups of experienced science teachers, experienced research scientists, novice science teachers, subject area science majors, and preservice science teachers. The paucity of research on content teaching in a diverse classroom as a pressing issue in teacher education has received special focus in the United States as well as in other countries, like the Netherlands, Britain and Australia. Comments and questions may be directed to her via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Gess-Newsome, J., and N.G. Shulman defined pedagogical content knowledge as teachers’ interpretations and transformations of subject-matter knowledge in the context of facilitating student learning. 1. The integrated nature of pedagogical content knowledge is also described by Kennedy (1990). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. Exemplary practice in science classrooms. Try to get inside their heads and see the ideas from their point of view. 23-36). However, compared to the researchers (who showed a flexible subject matter structure), the teachers showed a more fixed structure, hypothesized to result from curriculum constraints. Theme: Pedagogical Content Knowledge [Special issue]. Loughran, J., and P. Mulhall, A. Berry. Tobin, K., & Garnett, P. (1988). 15. “Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Construct and its Implications for Science Education,” Contemporary Trends and Issues in Science Education (2001). Washington, D.C. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. District faculty development staff or people at a local university can help you get one started and may be able to provide substitute support. 29, No. Pedagogical content knowing: An integrative model for teacher preparation. ], 5815 Callaghan Road, Suite 101 Van Driel, J.H., and N. Verloop, W. de Vos. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Pedagogical content knowledge is deeply rooted in the experiences and assets of students, their families and communities. Teachers also need to see how ideas connect across fields and to everyday life. Vol. It includes recognition of what makes specific topics difficult to learn, the conceptions students bring to the learning of these concepts, and teaching strategies tailored to this specific teaching situation. Through several of IDRA’s professional development models, like Math Smart!, Science Smart! “Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents: Re-thinking Content Literacy,” Harvard Educational Review (2008). Below are eight of several professional development principles that foster actions (or practices) that, when well orchestrated, can result in the solid PCK in all content teachers. PCK theory questions the value of knowing everything about a subject if one does not understand how students learn it or the value of being the very best at instructional strategies if those strategies cannot deliver high quality subject matter knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge in social studies. Pedagogical content knowledge is deeply rooted in a teacher’s everyday work. 1, No. ED 290 701) Gudmundsdottir, S. (1987a). ED 293 181). If all content teachers are formally trained, why is professional learning still necessary? Elementary Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Structure and Properties of Matter. Science Education, 77, 25-45. They described a model of pedagogical content knowledge that results from an integration of four major components, two of which are subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. found that science majors and preservice teachers both showed similar, loosely organized subject matter knowledge; and that the subject matter knowledge of the novice and experienced teachers and the research scientists was much deeper and more complex. Cochran, K. F., DeRuiter, J. Holmes Group. The concept of pedagogical content knowledge is not new. Yet, they have not netted the hoped-for results in student learning as evidenced in poor performance on achievement tests. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. how ATP-ADP transformations occur) and how best to deal with those difficult concepts using a variety of analogies, examples, demonstrations and models. 1. Tomorrow's teachers: A report of the Holmes Group. When we do this, we support the growth of the teacher as a person and a professional who can expertly lead a student to academic success. 665-692. “Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform,” Harvard Educational Review (1987). 437-449). “Ten Principles that Guide the Development of an Effective Educational Plan for English Language Learners at the Secondary Level – Part II,” IDRA Newsletter (San Antonio, Texas: Intercultural Development Research Association, February 2009). The recent development of the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) as well as a multitude of state, district, and school level content area standards, have further renewed emphasis on the importance of subject matter. Wilson, S. M., Shulman, L. S., & Richert, A. E. (1987). "Those who can, do. New York: Oxford University Press. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 19, 385-401. Recently, there has been a renewed recognition of the importance of teachers' science subject matter knowledge, both as a function of research evidence (e.g., Ball & McDiarmid, 1990; Carlsen, 1987; Hashweh, 1987), and as a function of literature from reform initiatives such as the Holmes Group (1986) and the Renaissance Group (1989). . 35(6), 673-695. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 31, 59-70. Borko, H. “Professional Development and Teacher Learning: Mapping the Terrain,” Educational Researcher (2004). Villarreal, A. This transformation occurs as the teachercritically reflects on and interprets the subject matter; finds multiple ways to represent the information as analogies, metaphors, examples, problems, demonstrations, and/or classroom activities; adapts the material to students' developmental levels and abilities, gender, prior knowledge, and misconceptions; and finally tailorsthe material to those specific individual or groups of students to whom the information will be taught.