swahili verb tenses
The basic numbers 0-10 are pretty simple: *Note: Cardinal numbers "one" and "two" are equivalent to "moja" and "mbili". All animate things (even when they are in a different class), use the m- or wa- adjective prefixes from Class 1 or 2 respectively. prefix –li-, To form (This is purely by coincidence, but its helpful for remembering). events. (Yeah, confusing right?) Take the first two noun classes (1 and 2). Swahili[swa] (ISO 639-2) grammaris typical for Bantu languages, bearing all the hallmarks of this language family. So "mia moja" is equivalent to "one hundred". For instance, in English we can have one "sheep" or many "sheep". This may seem kind of silly to an English speaker, but the word "of" changes based on the noun it follows. Sorry. We know "my" is translated to the base word of "-angu". The present tense also drops the tense prefix. This can be applied to verb conjugations, Object Prefixes, Places, etc. Don't forget to use the sidebar to email me with any errors so that I can correct them! (Note: These ones ARE the same as the "of" words. A quick recap: (This can be visualized by looking at the the exact opposite number of the hour hand. The first thing to know, is that Swahili days center around 7 AM and 7 PM instead of midnight and noon (12's) in USA times. For 45 minutes, you use subtraction. So I am just gonna give you an example: Imagine that you now want to say "the child does not sing". The past tense uses "ku" instead of "li" as the tense prefix. (Technically, it is an extension of the -me tense. Again... please master Object Prefixes. They use the word "mia" or "hundred". "Kuwa na" meaning "to have" also conjugates a little weird in the present tense. It is formed similarly to the past tense: *NOTE: As you probably noticed, I had all the -po/-ko/-mo's in parenthesis for Past and Future tense. This form is almost identical to the Object Prefixes above. © 2014-2020. prefix –na- to form the present tense: a-na-enda,( So if you included that prefix as well you would have: The prefixes for these possessives correspond to the noun class of the noun they reference. However, when using ordinal numbers (first, second, third... etc), "first" and "second" correspond to "kwanza" and "pili". *NOTE: For Class 5, we use the symbol "Ø". The past tense uses "ku" instead of "li" as the tense prefix. This is just something you need to know. Yeye huendesha gari la … Powered by Google App Engine • Github Repo Below is a list of the conjugated Verbs in the present past and future in Swahili placed in a table. Here is a common example: Rafiki (the word for "friend(s)") is a word in Class 9 & 10 (the singular and plural are the same). Conjugating verbs formula: pronoun prefix + tense prefix + verb root For the tens column (20, 30, 40, ... 90) things get REALLY weird. Once again, I will leave you with a simple example that should be self-explainitory: Let's say you want to write the sentence "my child". Maybe that will make it easier to remember. A helpful trick to remember the tense prefixes is by using the common girls name "Natalie". summary tenses in Swahili are determined by the prefix you put before the verb. Note: In present tense, verbs ending with "a" change the final "a" to an "i". The child is still technically doing the "cooking", except now the thing being cooked (pizza) is the subject of the sentence. Normally, Class 9 & 10 would use ya or za respectively, but since friends are living people, they use wa. You say something along the lines of "15 minutes before ..." So you use kasarobo (minus a quarter) with the next hour. REMEMBER: This does NOT apply to Class 9 & 10. For the past tense, you use the past tense of kuwa merged with -po/-ko/-mo as a single word: Here is the future tense. To start out, I will provide you with a scary chart that has everything you need to know about the basics of noun classes (Note: We will focus on classes 1-10 since they are used most commonly): Now that we got the scary part out of the way, let us start breaking down the columns to make sense of this mystery. For instance, take the verb "-nunua". So if there is a "friend of Bob", you would have: Rafiki wa Bob. Lastly, I will provide you with some example sentences: *NOTE: Some nouns will add "-ni" at the end when talking about location. events. Mimi huwa siendi kazini saa mbili asubuhi kila siku. *NOTE: "-kwisha" means "to finish". In Swahili, verbs take the following the Thank you :). The example below uses the verb "-cheza" meaning "dance" or "play". You can see this in action in the Tenses section below. 2. Tenses Tenses [nyakati] There are five major tenses in Swahili: Present [wakati uliopo] Present Perfect [wakati uliopo hali timilifu] Past [wakati uliopita] Future [wakati ujao] Habitual [wakati wa mazoea] A). You can apply this same process for any noun. They tune it to "American-style" time and just read the opposite hour as seen in the pictures above. we will use the prefix from the chart. The tu identifies that the action is being done "to us", but we can add "sisi" for clarity as necessary. You should have noticed that we used "-na", which (when combined with "kuwa") is used to mean "to have". Keep in mind, eventually you will need to more-or-less memorize this whole table. Then you look into the table and find the appropriate word for "of" being wa. My terminology should all be taken "as-is". This is just as good a time as any to introduce "-na". Half of them are the same as the pronoun prefix, the other half are different. These will mostly be basics for people who forget things like negations, conjugation, etc. Verbs are used to express an action (I swim) or a state of being (I am). Here is a common example: Rafiki (the word for "friend(s)") is a word in Class 9 & 10 (the singular and plural are the same). prefix –na- to form the, In Swahili If you look in the chart, you will notice that Class 1 and yeye take the same prefix: a- (or yu- for Places). Well, similarly to above, you determine mtoto is Class 1 because it is the singular of mtoto/watoto which matches the first pair of classes: m/wa.
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